19th Century Oil Painting Colonial India Military Portrait LT COL Peter Steinson 18th Reg Madras NI 1797-1851
19th Century Oil Painting Colonial India Military Portrait LT COL Peter Steinson 18th Reg Madras NI 1797-1851
19th Century Oil Painting Colonial India Military Portrait LT COL Peter Steinson 18th Reg Madras NI 1797-1851
19th Century Oil Painting Colonial India Military Portrait LT COL Peter Steinson 18th Reg Madras NI 1797-1851
19th Century Oil Painting Colonial India Military Portrait LT COL Peter Steinson 18th Reg Madras NI 1797-1851
19th Century Oil Painting Colonial India Military Portrait LT COL Peter Steinson 18th Reg Madras NI 1797-1851
19th Century Oil Painting Colonial India Military Portrait LT COL Peter Steinson 18th Reg Madras NI 1797-1851
19th Century Oil Painting Colonial India Military Portrait LT COL Peter Steinson 18th Reg Madras NI 1797-1851
19th Century Oil Painting Colonial India Military Portrait LT COL Peter Steinson 18th Reg Madras NI 1797-1851

19th Century Oil Painting Colonial India Military Portrait LT COL Peter Steinson 18th Reg Madras NI 1797-1851

c. 1840 India

Offered by Roger Bradbury Antiques

£3,850 gbp
Request Information Call Dealer
Listing Information
Views
11
Enquiries
0
Favourites
0
19th Century English School portrait of Peter Steinson, Lieutenant Colonel, 18th Regiment Madras NI, born 1797 died 1851. A half profile portrait in regimental outfit, oil on canvas, unsigned, presented within its original gilt gesso frame which bears some losses.

This portrait is in totally original condition having never been cleaned or relined. In my opinion this portrait could do with a professional light clean and varnish.
There is a label of provenance verso, the canvas is stamped ‘Windsor and Newton London’

A fine reminder of the days of the Great British Empire.

Size to include frame: H52cm L47cm Image only: H34cm L29cm

If you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact.
Presented within its original gilt gesso frame which bears some losses. This portrait is in totally original condition having never been cleaned or relined. In my opinion this portrait could do with a professional light clean and varnish.
Peter Steinson was the son of James Steinson formerly of Garmouth. He was the brother of Isabella Steinson who married Captain J Hay, 93rd Regiment. His daughter married in 1844. The family grave of the Steinsons is in the churchyard at Garmouth. Peter Steinson appears in various dispatch notes, etc. of the day. Canvas stamped verso 'Windsor and Newton London'
In 1600 Queen Elizabeth I granted a charter to the ‘The Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading to the East Indies’, giving a monopoly to develop England’s trade with the Far East and India.The company set up local trading factories where it would purchase goods for shipment back to England. In the early days most of the trade was with the South East Asian ‘Spice Islands’, with the first factory in India being established at Surat, near Bombay, in 1611. King Charles II received Bombay, from Portugal, as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza, in 1662. In Southern India, Fort St George was built at Madras, in 1639 and in the North East, Fort William, Calcutta, was established in 1696. These three Presidencies of Bombay, Madras and Bengal continued throughout the rule of the EIC, each with its own administration and army. In the 17th century a largely Hindu India was under the rule of the Muslim Muhgal emperors. Their power waned during the 18th century as local rulers vied with one another for power. Into this growing anarchy came the European traders from Britain, France, Holland and Portugal, all intent on snatching power at the expense of each other and the local rulers. This trade struggle, primarily between Britain and France, lasted nearly 100 years, with Britain eventually becoming master of India. Of course armed struggle needs vast amounts of weaponry to sustain it and with the prize of a continent’s wealth to be won, the EIC invested large sums in procuring high quality arms from the London gunmakers. It is outside the scope of this book to detail all the actions fought by the British in India, indeed there are many books which categorise the campaigns and wars in great detail. However the subjugation of India was effected between 1660 and the end of the 2nd Sikh war in 1849. During the early period the British defeated the French at Arcot (Madras) in 1750 and Plassey (Bengal) in 1757. Later the French were defeated in Madras, at Condore in 1758, and Masulipatam in 1759. After a defeat at Wandiwash and the loss of their forts, including Pondicherry in 1760, the French military power in India never recovered. There were, however, powerful local leaders to contend with and between 1767 and 1799, the British fought four wars in Southern India, with the Mahrajahs of Mysore, culminating in the defeat of Tippoo Sultan at Seringapatam in 1799. In Western and Central India the British were faced with the Maratha Confederacy of the Peshwar, Holkar, Sindia, Bhonsla and Gaekwar. Three wars were fought between 1778 and 1818, culminating in the surrender of the Peshwar in 1818, which finally gave the British supremacy in Central India. Although Central and Southern India had been subdued, the Company still had some way to go to establish supremacy over the warrior states of the North West and Burma in the east. Two wars were fought to subdue Burma, in 1824-1826 and 1852-1853. However, the main preoccupation was with the North West frontier of India and the fear of a Russian invasion, through India, into Central Asia. In 1838 Britain invaded Afghanistan and occupied Kabul in 1839. In 1841 the Afghans in Kabul rose in revolt and the British were forced to retreat through the Khyber pass to India. The retreat and massacre of the total British garrison was
one of the worst defeats for the British in India but worse, it showed the warlike tribes of northern India, particularly the Baluchis and the Sikhs, that the British could be defeated. It also brought home to the British that, if India was to be safe from invasion from the north, then control of the northern tribes must be achieved. In 1843 the Baluchis of Sind attacked the British residency in Hyderabad. Britain reacted quickly and defeated the Baluchis at the battle of Miani and in a series of minor actions. In the Punjab, relations with the Sikhs deteriorated after the death of the pro British ruler, Ranjit Singh, in 1839. In 1845 a Sikh army invaded British territory but were defeated at Moodkee, Ferozeshah and Aliwal, resulting in the British occupying Lahore and the Punjab becoming a British protectorate. The second Sikh war broke out in 1848 when Multan was taken by the Sikh army. Two inconclusive battles were fought at Ramnagar (1848) and Chillianwallah (1849) followed by the final decisive defeat of the Sihks, at Gujerat, in 1849. Until the Indian Mutiny in 1857, all India prospered under British rule under the auspices of the EIC.

THE ARMIES OF INDIA
During the time of war and conquest the EIC had been building, strengthening and maintaining armies in the three presidencies of Bengal, Bombay and Madras to protect trade and expand it’s territories. Thecompany had five primary types of forces available.
i)British army regiments sent out from England, the first of which had been the 39th Foot sent out in
1754.
ii)Locally formed European regiments paid for and equipped by the EIC.
iii)Locally raised sepoy native regiments paid for and equipped by the EIC in the style of European
regiments and with European officers.
iv)Irregular native troops, mostly cavalry, operating on the traditional Indian ‘sillidar’ system, where
the EIC or the regimental officers provided firearms and ammunition. These were from the early
19th century and mostly named after the British officer who formed them.
v)The native armies of local rulers loyal to the EIC.

BENGAL
The Bengal army was first raised by Clive in 1757, and by 1796 had three artillery battalions, three regiments of European infantry, twelve, two battalion regiments of native infantry and ten regiments of native cavalry. The native cavalry were first formed, in 1773, with the Governor’s Troop of Moguls, followed by the Oudh Cavalry in 1776 and the Kandahar Horse in 1778. In 1803 a regiment of irregular cavalry, Skinner’s Horse, was brought in from Sindia. Later irregular regiments of horse were Gardner’s Horse (1809), 1st, 2nd and 3rd Rohilla Cavalry (1815) and Gough’s Horse (1823). By 1842 there were 11 regiments of regular native Bengal Light Cavalry and by 1846 18 regiments of Local Horse, renamed Bengal Irregular Cavalry in 1840. Bengal also formed a troop of Horse Artillery in 1806, which expanded to seven all European troops by 1818.

BOMBAY
In 1668 King Charles II handed over Bombay to the Company and the garrison entered Company service becoming the Bombay European Regiment. In 1759 the sepoy companies still had their own native officers but by 1780 there were 15 battalions of native infantry along European lines, with European officers. These battalion numbers went up and down according to the demands of war at the time. The Bombay presidency had no cavalry of its own and tended to rely on the mounted troops provided by its Indian allies. Since these could be unreliable, in 1804 a troop of regular cavalry was raised and in 1817, during the 3rd Maratha War, an auxiliary force of 5,000 native cavalry was trained by British officers and became the Poona Auxiliary Horse, a sillidar regiment of cavalry. By 1820 there were also three regiments of regular light cavalry. In 1839 the irregular units were increased with the formation of the Gujerat Irregular Horse and the Scinde Irregular Horse. The Bombay army also had units of Horse artillery. In 1846 the 2nd Scinde Irregular Horse was raised followed in 1850 by the South Mahratta Horse.

MADRAS
In Madras, in 1758, it was decided to form some 3,000 native foot soldiers into four native infantry battalions under European officers. By 1796 there were two regiments of European infantry, eleven regiments each of two battalion of native infantry, two battalions of five artillery companies and four regiments of native cavalry. By 1824 there were 25 regiments of native infantry, with two more raised by 1830. By 1840, Madras had eight regiments of native Light Cavalry, four of which were disbanded between 1857 and 1860. While the Madras Army did not have irregular troops they did introduce rifles (1814) and light infantry (1811), later they had several troops of Horse Artillery. With the emphasis on conquest and pacification in the North West, Madras was something of a back water by 1840 but was the main source of troops for the wars in Burma and China.

OTHER STATES
In 1826 five regiments of regular cavalry were formed in Hyderabad. These were ostensibly to protect The Nizam of Hyderabad but also to keep Hyderabad in check. With British officers they were first named 1st - 4th Regiment Nizam’s Cavalry and the 5th Regiment Ellichpur Horse, but in 1854 they were renamed 1st– 4th Cavalry, Hyderabad Contingent. After the 1st Sikh war, when the British annexed the Punjab, local native forces were formed. In 1846 a Corps of Guides, consisting of one troop of cavalry and two companies of infantry was raised. These troops wore white cotton dyed with mud which was the first use of a khaki uniform. In 1849 five further troops of cavalry were raised (1st – 5th Punjab Cavalry).
Medium
Oil on canvas
Roger Bradbury Antiques

Roger Bradbury Antiques
Skeyton Lodge
Long road
Skeyton
Norfolk
NR10 5ED

Contact Details
01692 538 293
-
07860 372 528
-
Email Dealer More Contact Details
Opening Hours
Contacts
View Dealer Location
Member Since 2016
View Full Details